Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines

© 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.


References 900-999

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902. P. Menzel, F. D’Aluisio, Robo sapiens: Evolution of a New Species, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000.

903. Cem Unsal, Han Kiliccote, Pradeep K. Khosla, “I(CES)-Cubes: A modular self-reconfigurable bipartite robotic system,” Proc. 1999 SPIE Conf. on Mobile Robots and Autonomous Systems, September 1999, Boston, MA, Sensor Fusion and Decentralized Control in Robotic Systems II, 1999, pp. 258-269; see “I-Cubes”:

904. Cem Unsal, Pradeep K. Khosla, “Mechatronic design of a modular self-reconfiguring robotic system,” Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. On Robotics and Automation, 2000, pp. 1742-1747.

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914. “Computer Controlled LEGO® Car Factory,” See also: C. Cassandras, “Computer Controlled LEGO® Car Factory,” University of Massachusetts, 1996;

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918. Jonathan B. Knudsen, The Unofficial Guide to LEGO® Mindstorms Robots, O’Reilly & Associates, 1999; Dave Baum, Extreme Mindstorms: An Advanced Guide to LEGO® Mindstorms, APress, 2000; Mario Ferrari, Giulio Ferrari, Ralph Hempel, Building Robots with LEGO® Mindstorms: The Ultimate Tool for Mindstorms Maniacs, Syngress Media Inc., 2001; Mario Ferrari, Giulio Ferrari, Kevin Clague, J.P. Brown, Ralph Hempel, LEGO® Mindstorms Masterpieces: Building Advanced Robots, Syngress Media Inc, 2003; Don Wilcher, LEGO® Mindstorms Mechatronics: Using Systems and Controls to Build Sophisticated Robots, McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics, New York, 2003.

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930. Jordan B. Pollack, Hod Lipson, “The GOLEM Project: Evolving Hardware Bodies and Brains,” Proceedings of the Second NASA/DoD Workshop on Evolvable Hardware (EH’00), 13-15 July 2000, Palo Alto CA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2000;

931. For example, see: Terry Wohlers, “The World of Rapid Prototyping,” Proc. Fourth Intl. Conf. On Desktop Manufacturing, 24-25 September 1992, San Jose, CA, Wohlers Associates, 1992,; “University Rapid Prototyping Programs,”; “Rapid Manufacturing Processes at University and R&D Labs,” Carnegie Mellon University, Spring 1997,; “The Commercial Rapid Prototyping Systems,”; “Commercial Rapid Prototyping System Manufacturers,”; “Rapid Prototyping Directory,”; Stratasys Inc.,; Z Corporation, “Industry-Standard Three-Dimensional Printers & Solutions,”

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934., a division of Vicale Corp.,; “Stereolithography (SLA),”; “Selective Laser Sintering (SLS),”; “Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM),”; “Layer Object Manufacturing (LOM),”; “3 Dimensional Printing (3DP),”

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938. M. W. Tilden, “Living Machines and the Robot Jurassic Park: Primitives to Predators,” Neuromorphic Workshop, Telluride, Colorado, July 6, 1995, and Recursos Smithsonian Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 14, 1995.

939. M. W. Tilden, J. Moses, R. Mainieri, and B. Hasslacher, “Autonomous Biomorphic Robots as Platforms for Sensors,” DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C., August 1996;

940. M. W. Tilden, “A Concurrent Application Research Proposal for the Development of Living Machines,” NASA AIAA Nanosat Meeting, Houston, Texas, November 1, 1995.

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944. Gerard K. O’Neill, “Space colonies: The high frontier,” The Futurist 10(February 1976):25-33;

945. Gerard K. O’Neill, The High Frontier, William Morrow, New York, 1977.

946. Freeman J. Dyson, “The life of Gerard K. O’Neill (obituary),” Physics Today 46(February 1993); See also: “Gerard K. O’Neill biography,” Space Frontier Foundation,

947. Richard D. Johnson, Charles Holbrow, eds., Space Settlements: A Design Study, NASA/Ames Research Center, NASA SP-413, Washington DC, 1977.

948. T.A. Heppenheimer, Colonies in Space, Warner Books, Inc., New York, 1977.

949. Gerard K. O’Neill, Brian O’Leary, eds., Space-Based Manufacturing from Nonterrestrial Materials, AIAA, New York, 1977.

950. Jerry Grey, ed., Space Manufacturing Facilities I & II, AIAA, New York, 1977.

951. John Billingham, William Gilbreath, Brian O’Leary, eds. Space Resources and Space Settlements, NASA/Ames Research Center, NASA SP-428, Washington DC, 1979.

952. Gerard K. O’Neill, “The low (profile) road to space manufacturing,” Astronautics and Aeronautics 16(March 1978):18-32; available for purchase from SSI at

953. David R. Criswell, “The initial lunar supply base,” in John Billingham, William Gilbreath, Brian O’Leary, eds., Space Resources and Space Settlements, NASA/Ames Research Center, NASA SP-428, Washington DC, 1979, pp. 206-224.

954. Gerard K. O’Neill, “Recent work on use of lunar materials for SPS construction,” Final Proceedings of the Solar Power Satellite Program Review, U.S. Department of Energy, GPO, Washington, DC, 1980.

955. Gerard K. O’Neill, The Technology Edge: Opportunities for America in World Competition, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1984, 1985 (reprint edition).

956. Judson T. Hewitt, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 17 March 1997.

957. Judson T. Hewitt, “Development of manufacturing facilities in space able to use only extraterrestrial materials,” Space Power 12(1993):175-227; Judson T. Hewitt, “Construction of solar power satellites and space habitats via self-reproducing manufacturing facilities,” Space Power 13(1994):71-74.

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959. Space Studies Institute, “First steps to lunar manufacturing: Results of the 1988 SSI Lunar Systems Workshop,” Lunar and Planetary Institute, 1988; available for purchase from SSI at

960. Gerard K. O’Neill, “Alternative plan for U.S. National Space Program,” Space Studies Institute, Princeton, NJ, 1990;

961. David Criswell, Extraterrestrial Materials Processing and Construction, Final Report, NSR 09-051-001, Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston TX, 31 January 1980.

962. “Chapter 4. Nonterrestrial Utilization of Materials: Automated Space Manufacturing Facility,” pp. 77-188, and Section 4.3.3, “Starting Kits,” pp. 119-126, in Robert A. Freitas Jr., William P. Gilbreath, eds., Advanced Automation for Space Missions, NASA Conference Publication CP-2255, 1982.

963. Rene H. Miller, Marvin L. Minsky, David B.S. Smith, Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS), Phase I, Final Report, MIT Space Systems Laboratory and AI Laboratory, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA CR-162079, August 1982.

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967. “Skyworker,” The Robotics Institute, NASA Grant No. NAG9-1141, 2003;

968. Reid Simmons, “Welcome to the Wonderful World of Autonomous Robots!” Robotics Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 11 October 2002;

969. Alberto Behar, George Bekey, George Friedman, “Sub-kilogram intelligent tele-robots for asteroid exploration and exploitation (SKIT),” Space Studies Institute, October-December 1996, pp. 1-10;

970. C.W. Schneiker, “Prospects and Applications for Genesis and Ultra Mass Production of Sub-Millimeter Machines, Devices, and Replicating Systems,” distributed at 1983 Space Development Conference, Houston, Texas, 1983. Cited in: Conrad Schneiker, “NanoTechnology with Feynman machines: scanning tunneling engineering and artificial life,” in Christopher G. Langton, ed., Artificial Life, Santa Fe Institute, Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Volume VI, Addison-Wesley, NY, 1989, pp. 443-500. See also: C.W. Schneiker, “Some research topics for a new space development programme,” J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 37(1984):190-192.

971. Hans Moravec, “Robots that rove,” Robotics Institute, CMU, 11 September 1984; SIGBIO 7(June 1985):13-15;

972. Steve Vetter, “Minimizing the initial space manufacturing base,” in Barbara Faughnan, ed., Space Manufacturing: 10 Pathways to the High Frontier, Proceedings of the Twelfth SSI-Princeton Conference, 4-7 May 1995, Space Studies Institute, August 1995, pp. 245-253.

973. Tom McKendree, “Planning Scenarios for Space Development,” in Barbara Faughnan, ed., Space Manufacturing: 10 Pathways to the High Frontier, Proceedings of the Twelfth SSI-Princeton Conference, 4-7 May 1995, Space Studies Institute, August 1995, pp. 254-265.

974. Thomas L. McKendree, “Technical and Operational Assessment of Molecular Nanotechnology for Space Operations,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, August 2001.

975. Tom McKendree, “The logical core architecture,” Nanotechnology 9(September 1998):212-222;

976. Thomas L. McKendree, “Balancing molecular nanotechnology-based space transportation and space manufacturing using location theory: a preliminary look,” paper presented at the Space Studies Institute Conference on Space Manufacturing, 8-11 May 1997,; Newsletter of the Molecular Manufacturing Shortcut Group, Volume 5, Number 3, Third Quarter, 1997;

977. J. Suthakorn, Y. Zhou, G.S. Chirikjian, “Self-replicating robots for space utilization,” Proc. Robosphere 2002, Workshop on Self Sustaining Robotic Ecologies, NASA/Ames Research Center, CA, 14-15 November 2002;

978. Jerome D. Rosen, “Using Mechanosynthetic Assemblers to Build an Orbital Tower,” Newsletter of the Molecular Manufacturing Shortcut Group, Volume 4, Number 1, First Quarter, 1996;

979. J. Storrs Hall, “Diamond in the Sky,” IMM Report No. 16, 6 June 2000;

980. Gregory S. Chirikjian, Yu Zhou, Jackrit Suthakorn, “Self-replicating robots for lunar development,” JHU Technical Report RMS-1-2002; also in Special Issue on Self-Reconfiguration Robots, ASME/IEEE Transactions on Mechatronics 7(December 2002):462-472;

981. Alex Ignatiev, T. Kubricht, Alexandre Freundlich, “Solar cell development on the surface of the Moon,” Proc. 49th Intl. Astronautical Congress, IAA-98-IAA. 13.2.03, 1998.

982. Benjamin Chui, Lea Kissner, “Nanorobots for Mars EVA repair,” SAE Intl. Conf. on Environmental Systems, July 2000;

983. Kenneth Malpass, “Profitable condominium development using self-replicating O’Neill colonies,” in Bettie Greber, ed., Space Manufacturing 13: Settling Circumsolar Space, Proc. Thirteenth SSI/Princeton Conference On Space Manufacturing, 7-9 May 2001, pp. 257-259.

984. Paul D. Fernhout, Cynthia F. Kurtz, “A review of licensing and collaborative development with special attention to design of self-replicating space habitat systems,” in Bettie Greber, ed., Space Manufacturing 13: Settling Circumsolar Space, Proc. Thirteenth SSI/Princeton Conference On Space Manufacturing, 7-9 May 2001, pp. 271-281.

985. Giorgio Buttazzo, “Artificial consciousness: Utopia or real possibility?” IEEE Computer Magazine 34(July 2001):24-30; (abstract).

986. Ted Howard, “Vision 2020,”; “Miniature Factory: How do we build a self replicating robotic complex?”; “Doubling is Power,”

987. Forrest Bishop, “The Starseed/Launcher,” Newsletter of the Molecular Manufacturing Shortcut Group, Volume 4, Number 2, Second Quarter, 1996;

988. George Friedman, “The Space Studies Institute view on self-replication,” The Assembler 4(Fourth Quarter 1996):1-4;

989. George Friedman, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 22 September 2001.

990. Raj Reddy, “To dream the possible dream,” Commun. ACM 39(May 1996):106-112;

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997. David S. McKay, Hubert P. Davis, Marshall Burns, “Using fabricators to reduce space transportation costs,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, University of Texas at Austin, 14 August 1995;

998. Digital Fabrication Portal “”;

999. Brock Hinzmann, “The Personal Factory,” MCB Internet Conference on Rapid Prototyping, 1996;


Last updated on 1 August 2005