Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines

© 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.


References 800-899

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839. Larry Yaeger, “T2 and Technology,”

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843. Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Kawauchi, “Cellular robotic system (CEBOT) as one of the realization of self-organizing intelligent universal manipulator,” Proc. 1990 IEEE Intl. Conf. On Robotics and Automation, 13-18 May 1990, Cincinnati, OH, IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington DC., 1990, pp. 662-667.

844. T. Fukuda, S. Nakagawa, F. Hara, “Dynamic distributed knowledge system in self-organizing robotic systems: CEBOT,” Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. Robotics and Automation, 1991, pp. 1908-1913.

845. T. Fukuda, T. Ueyama, F. Arai, “Control strategies for cellular robotic network,” in A.H. Lewis, H.E. Stephanou, eds., Distributed Intelligence Systems, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1992, pp. 177-182.

846. Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Kawauchi, “Cellular robotics: construction of complicated systems from simple functions,” in Paolo Dario, Giulio Sandini, Patrick Aebischer, eds., Robots and Biological Systems: Towards a New Bionics? Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993, pp. 745-782.

847. Toshio Fukuda, Kousuke Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi Ueyama, Fumihito Arai, “Efficient communication method in the cellular robotic system,” in Proc. 1993 IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. On Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS’93), Yokohama, Japan, 26-30 July 1993, Volume II, pp. 1091-1096.

848. Department of Mechano-Informatics System Engineering, Center for Cooperative Research in Advanced Science and Technology, Nagoya University, Japan;

849. T. Fukuda, T. Ueyama, Cellular Robotics and Micro Robotic Systems, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1994.

850. N. Mitsumoto, T. Fukuda, K. Shimojina, A. Ogawa, “Micro autonomous robotic system and biologically inspired immune system swarm strategy as a multi agent robotic system,” Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. On Robotics and Automation, 1995, pp. 2187-2192; Toshio Fukuda, Hiroo Mizoguchi, Fumihito Arai, Kosuke Sekiyama, “Micro Autonomous Robot Systems (MARS): Coordination and control of multiple micro robots,” J. Micromechatronics 1(July 2001):239-251.

851. Mark Yim, “Locomotion with a unit-modular reconfigurable robot,” Stanford University Technical Report STAN-CS-TR-95-1536;

852. Mark Yim, David G. Duff, Kimon D. Roufas, “PolyBot: a modular reconfigurable robot,” IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2000,; see also “Polybot” at:; photos from:

853. M. Yim, Y. Zhang, D. Duff, “Modular robots,” IEEE Spectrum 39(2002):30-34.

854. M. Yim, “A reconfigurable modular robot with many modes of locomotion,” Proc. 1993 JSME Intl. Conf. on Advanced Mechatronics, Tokyo, Japan, August 1993, pp. 283-288.

855. Mark Yim, “Morphing Robots,” March 1998;

856. Tad Hogg, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 9 September 2003.

857. Hristo Bojinov, Arancha Casal, Tad Hogg, “Multiagent Control of Modular Self-Reconfigurable Robots,” Artificial Intelligence 142(2002):99-120;

858. Jeremy Kubica, Arancha Casal, Tad Hogg, “Agent-based control for object manipulation with modular self-reconfigurable robots,” Proc. 17th Intl. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-2001), Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, 2001, pp. 1344-1349.

859. J. Kubica, A. Casal, T. Hogg, “Complex behaviors from local rules in modular self-reconfigurable robots,” IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Seoul, Korea, May 2001;

860. J. Suh, S. Homans, M. Yim, “Design tradeoffs for modular self-reconfigurable robots: the mechanical design of telecubes (a case study in progress),” IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) Workshop on Self-reconfigurable Robots, Seoul, Korea, May 2001;

861. Xerox PARC, “Modular Robotics Telecube: A Self-assembling Lattice Reconfiguration Robot,” January 2002;

862. S. Vassilvitskii, J. Suh, M. Yim, “A complete, local and parallel reconfiguration algorithm for cube style modular robots,” accepted to 2002 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA);

863. S. Vassilvitskii, J. Kubica, E. Rieffel, J. Suh, M. Yim, “On the general reconfiguration problem for expanding cube style modular robots,” accepted to 2002 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA);

864. J. Suh, S. Homans, M. Yim, “Telecubes: Mechanical design of a module for self-reconfigurable robotics,” submitted to 2002 IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA);

865. Xerox PARC, “Modular Robotics Telecube: Demonstrations and simulation. Videos of prototype functionality,” January 2002;

866. A. Castano, W.-M. Shen, P. Will, “CONRO: Towards deployable robots with inter-robot metamorphic capabilities,” Autonomous Robots 8(2000):309-324. See also the USC/ISI CONRO Project; . See also: Michael Rubenstein, Kenneth Payne, Peter Will, Wei-Min Shen, “Docking Among Independent and Autonomous CONRO Self-Reconfigurable Robots,” Information Sciences Institute (ISI), USC, 2003;; “Space Assembly and Service via Self-Reconfiguration,”; “Self-Assembly in Space via Self-Reconfigurable Robots,” ssps final.pdf; Philip Ball, “Puckish robots pull together,” Nature Science Update, 28 May 2004;; “Robotic Space Workers of the Future,” Roland Piquepaille’s Technology Trends, 29 May 2004;

867. D. Rus, G. Chirikjian, eds., Special Issue on Self-Reconfiguring Robots, Autonomous Robots 10(January 2001):1-124.

868. Johns Hopkins University, Robot Kinematics and Motion Planning Lab;

869. Joseph Michael, “Current electrically operated prototypes,” Digital Matter Control Web Site, 2001;; “MEMS,” Digital Matter Control Web Site, 2001;

870. Eiichi Yoshida, “Distributed self-reconfiguration of 3-D homogenous modular structure,” Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (MEL), Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan, 2001; See also: “Two Dimensional Self-Assembling/Self-Repairing Machine;

871. “The Crystalline Robot,” Dartmouth Robotics Lab; or

872. Daniela Rus, Zack Butler, Keith Kotay, Marsette Vona, “Self-reconfiguring robots,” Commun. ACM 45(March 2002):39-45;

873. Zack Butler, Daniela Rus, “Self-replicating robots for monitoring and surveillance,” Dartmouth University poster presentation at the Workshop on Intelligent Human Augmentation and Virtual Environments (WIHAVE), 17-19 October 2002;

874. Zack Butler, Satoshi Murata, Daniela Rus, “Distributed replication algorithms for self-reconfiguring modular robots,” Dartmouth College Robotics Lab, to appear in DARS2002;

875. K. Kotay, D. Rus, M. Vona, C. McGray, “The self-reconfiguring molecule: design and control algorithms,” in P. Agrawal, L. Kavraki, M. Mason, eds., Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, A.K. Peters, 1998;; C. McGray, D. Rus, “Self-reconfiguring molecules as 3-D metamorphic robots,” in Proc. 1998 Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems, 1998;

876. “The Molecule Robot,” Dartmouth Robotics Lab;

877. M.T. Mason, D.K. Pai, D. Rus, J. Howell, L.R. Taylor, M.A. Erdmann, “Experiments with desktop mobile manipulators,” Experimental Robotics VI Lecture Notes in Control and Information Science 250(2000):37-46.

878. Self-Reconfiguring Robots at the Dartmouth Robotics Lab;

879. “MinDART – Minnesota Distributed Autonomous Robotics Team,” Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, September 2001; See also University of Minnesota Center for Distributed Robotics;

880. A.B. Neville, A.C. Sanderson, “TETROBOT: A Modular System for Hyperredundant Robotics,” Proceedings of 1995 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nagoya, Japan, May 1995.

881. A.B. Neville, A.C. Sanderson, “Tetrobot family tree: modular synthesis of kinematic structures for parallel robotics,” IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, November 1996, pp. 382-389.

882. G.J. Hamlin, A.C. Sanderson, Tetrobot: A Modular Approach to Reconfigurable Parallel Robotics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Newton, MA, 1998; see Tetrobot website at:

883. Woo Ho Lee, Arthur C. Sanderson, “Dynamic rolling, locomotion planning, and control of an icosahedral modular robot,” IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 31 October - 5 November 2000, Japan, pp. 2178-2183;

884. W.H. Lee, A.C. Sanderson, “Dynamic Analysis and Distributed Control of the Tetrobot Modular Reconfigurable Robotic System,” Autonomous Robots 10(2001):67-82. (Special Issue on Reconfigurable Robotics)

885. Pradeep K. Khosla, Takeo Kanade, Christiaan J.J. Paredis, “Reconfigurable modular manipulator system,” Advanced Mechatronics Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 2001;

886. Michigan State University College of Engineering, DARP Microrobot Project;

887. “Modular robot ready to walk,” Distributed System Design Group, Intelligent Systems Institute, AIST, Japan, July 2001; See also: “Experiment of self-reconfiguration by 9-module,” 2001;; and “M-TRAN II: Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robot,” updated 18 November 2003;

888. S. Murata, E. Yoshida, A. Kamimura, H. Kurokawa, K. Tomita, S. Kokaji, “M-TRAN: Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robotic System,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 7(2002):431-441; see also

889. Eiichi Yoshida, Satoshi Murata, Akiya Kamimura, Kohji Tomita, Haruhisa Kurokawa, Shigeru Kokaji, “A Self-Reconfigurable Modular Robot : Reconfiguration Planning and Experiments,” Intl. J. Robotics Res. 21(October 2002):903-916.

890. Eiichi Yoshida, Shigeru Kokaji, Satoshi Murata, Kohji Tomita, Haruhisa Kurokawa, “Miniaturization of Self-reconfigurable Robotic System using Shape Memory Alloy Actuator,” J. Robotics and Mechatronics 12(2000):96-102.

891. Eiichi Yoshida, Shigeru Kokaji, Satoshi Murata, Kohji Tomita, Haruhisa Kurokawa, “Micro Self-reconfigurable Robot using Shape Memory Alloy,” J. Robotics and Mechatronics 13(2001):212-219;

892. Eiichi Yoshida, Satoshi Murata, Akiya Kamimura, Shigeru Kokaji, Kohji Tomita, Haruhisa Kurokawa, “Get Back In Shape! A Hardware Prototype Self-Reconfigurable Modular Microrobot that Uses Shape Memory Alloy,” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 9(April 2002):54-60; See laboratory website at:

893. Swarm-bots Project, Future and Emerging Technologies Program of the European Community;

894. Intelligent Autonomous Systems Engineering Laboratory, University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol, U.K.;

895. Josh Bongard, “HYDRA Project,” Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, University of Zurich, Switzerland, 19 November 2001;

896. Koji Nishikawa, Takashi Nagai, Nobuyuki Takahashi, “Project: The Development of Amoeba Like Robot,” Laboratory of Autonomous Systems Engineering, Complex Systems Engineering, Hokkaido University;

897. Random Morphology Robot Project, Department of Computer Science, University of Dortmund, Germany;

898. K. Hosokawa, T. Fujii, H. Kaetsu, H. Asama, Y. Kuroda, I. Endo, “Self-organizing collective robots with morphogenesis in a vertical plane,” JSME Intl. Journal Series C Mechanical Systems Machine Elements and Manufacturing 42(March 1999):195-202.

899. Dr. Gavin Miller’s Snake Robots;


Last updated on 1 August 2005