Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines

© 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.


References 600-699

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601. Gerald Joyce, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 27 August 2003.

602. Tom Johnson, Self-Similar Melodies, 75 rue de la Roquette, 75011 Paris, 1996, pp. 233-277. See also: Tom Johnson, “Self-Replicating Loops,”; David Feldman, “Review of Self-Similar Melodies by Tom Johnson,” Leonardo Music Journal 8(1999):80-84,

603. T. Kaga, T. Fukuda, “Group behaviour control on dynamically reconfigurable robotic system,” Intl. J. Syst. Sci. 32(March 2001):353-363.

650. Charles Michael Collins, “Self reproducing fundamental fabricating machines (F-Units),” United States Patent No. 5,659,477, 19 August 1997;,659,477.WKU.&OS=PN/5,659,477

651. Charles M. Collins, “Self Reproducing Fundamental Fabricating Machine System,” United States Patent No. 5,764,518, 9 June 1998;,764,518.WKU.&OS=PN/5,764,518

652. John Iovine, Robots, Androids and Animatrons, Second Edition: 12 Incredible Projects You Can Build, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics, New York, 2001;

653. Stan Gibilisco, Teach Yourself Electricity and Electronics, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics, New York, 2001, p. 663;

654. Second International Conference on Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware (ICES98), 23-25 September 1998, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland;

655. Patricia S. Warrick, Mind in Motion: The Fiction of Philip K. Dick, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, IL, 1987.

656. Philip K. Dick, Vulcan’s Hammer: Battle of the Brain Machines, Ace Books, New York, 1960.

657. Karel Capek, R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots). A Play in Three Acts and an Epilogue. Written in Czech in 1920; premiered in Prague in early 1921 and first performed in New York in 1922; translated from the Czech by Paul Selver and adapted for the English Stage by Nigel Playfair, then first published in English translation in 1923 by Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, London, 1923 and by Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1923; reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 2001, and by Players Press Inc., 2002.

658. Edmond Hamilton, “The Metal Giants,” Weird Tales, December 1926. See cover art at

659. S. Fowler Wright, “Automata,” Weird Tales, September 1929.

660. Laurence Manning, “The Call of the Mech-Men,” Wonder Stories, November 1933.

661. Clifford D. Simak, “How-2,” Galaxy, November 1954. See cover art at

662. A.E. Van Vogt, The Voyage of the Space Beagle, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1950; Collier Books, reprint edition, 1992.

663. A.E. van Vogt, “Automaton,” Other Worlds, September 1950.

664. Lord Edward Dunsany, The Last Revolution, Jerrolds, London & New York, 1951.

665. Philip K. Dick, “The Gun,” Planet Stories, September 1952. Reprinted in: The Collected Stories of Philip K. Dick, Volume One: Beyond Lies the Wub, Underwood-Miller, 1987, pp. 35-46.

666. Philip K. Dick, “Second Variety,” Space Science Fiction, May 1953. (Manuscript received at Scott Meredith Literary Agency on 3 October 1952.). Also available in: Philip K. Dick, Second Variety and Other Classic Stories by Philip K. Dick, Citadel Press, 1991.

667. Bertrand Russell, “Dr. Southport Vulpes’ Nightmare,” in Bertrand Russell, Nightmares of Eminent Persons and Other Stories, Allen & Unwin, 1954 and Spokesman Press, 2000.

668. Philip K. Dick, “Autofac,” Galaxy Science Fiction Magazine 16(November 1955); Philip K. Dick, The Collected Stories of Philip K. Dick, Volume 4: The Minority Report, Citadel Press, 1992, pp. 1-20; pp. 1-6 excerpted online at See additional excerpt at:

669. Poul Anderson, “Epilogue,” Analog 69(March 1962):112-158.

670. Stanislaw Lem, The Invincible, Wydawnietwo Literakie, Krakow, 1964. English translation copyright 1973 by Charter Communications, Inc. Stanislaw Lem, The Invincible, The Seabury Press, 1973; Stanislaw Lem, The Invincible, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1976 (trans. Wendayne Ackerman) and Ace Books, 1976.

671. Fred Saberhagen, Berserker, Ballantine Books, New York, 1967; Fred Saberhagen, Berserker, Ace Books, New York, 1980, 1984, 1992. See also Berserker website at

672. John Thomas Sladek, The Reproductive System, Gollancz, London, 1968; John Thomas Sladek, Mechasm, Ace Books, New York, 1969 and Pocket Books, New York, 1980; John Sladek, The Reproductive System, Orion Publishing Group, 2000 and Victor Gollancz, 2001. Review at

673. Fred Saberhagen, Brother Assassin, Ace Books, New York, 1969; Fred Saberhagen, Brother Berserker, Orion Publishing Co., 1989. See cover art at

674. Ilya Varshavsky, “Homunculo (Homunculus),” 1967.

675. Bruce Sterling, “Taklamakan,” in Bruce Sterling, A Good Old-Fashioned Future, Bantam Spectra, New York, 1999.

676. David Zindell, The Broken God, Spectra, 1995, p. 271;

677. Edward F. Moore, “Artificial living plants,” Sci. Amer. 195(October 1956):118-126.

678. Iben Browning, “Organization and Vistas of the Entirety: A Periodic Table,” Report No. 98-001, Research Division, Bell Aircraft Corporation, December 1956. Reprinted in: Nelson B. Winkless III, Iben Browning, Robots on Your Doorstep: A Book About Thinking Machines, Robotics Press, Portland, 1978, pp. 13-36.

679. Nelson B. Winkless III, Iben Browning, Robots on Your Doorstep: A Book About Thinking Machines, Robotics Press, Portland, 1978.

680. L.S. Penrose, R. Penrose, “A self-reproducing analogue,” Nature 179(8 June 1957):1183;

681. L.S. Penrose, “Mechanics of self-reproduction,” Ann. Human Genetics 23(November 1958):59-72.

682. L.S. Penrose, “Automatic mechanical self-reproduction,” New Biology 28(January 1959):92-117.

683. L.S. Penrose, “Self-reproducing machines,” Sci. Amer. 200(June 1959):105-114.

684. L.S. Penrose, “Developments in the theory of self-replication,” New Biology 31(1960):57-66.

685. L.S. Penrose, “On living matter and self-replication,” in Irving John Good, Alan James Mayne, John Maynard Smith, eds., The Scientist Speculates, Heinemann, London, 1962; Capricorn Books Edition, New York, 1965, pp. 258-271.

686. L.S. Penrose, “Automatic mechanical self-replication,” 16 mm kodachrome movie film, Hemel Hempstead, Herts., England, filmed and distributed by H.A. Cresswell, 1958; 11 minutes. Cited in: Edward F. Moore, “Machine models of self-reproduction,” Proc. Symp. Applied Math. 14(1962):17-33; and in Michael J. Apter, Cybernetics and Development, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1966.

687. Homer Jacobson, “On models of reproduction,” American Scientist 46(September 1958):255-284.

688. Harold J. Morowitz, “A model of reproduction,” American Scientist 47(June 1959):261-263.

689. Charles R. Morgan, “Terraforming with nanotechnology,” J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 47(1994):311-318.

690. M.D. Nussinov, S.V. Lysenko, V.V. Patrikeev, “Terraforming of Mars through terrestrial microorganisms and nanotechnological devices,” J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 47(1994):319-320.

691. Robert J. Coppinger, “The Drexlerian Terraformation of Mars: A New Ark for Humanity,” Newsletter of the Molecular Manufacturing Shortcut Group, Volume 4, Number 1, First Quarter, 1996;

692. Stephen L. Gillett, “Inward Ho!” Chapter 4, in Stanley Schmidt, Robert Zubrin, eds., Islands in the Sky: Bold New Ideas for Colonizing Space, John Wiley & Sons, 1996, pp. 71-84;

693. Arthur C. Clarke, 2010: Odyssey Two, Random House, New York, 1982.

694. James Patrick Hogan, Code of the Lifemaker, Ballantine Del Rey, New York, 1983; Baen Books, New York, 2002; see “Background” at

695. Greg Bear, The Forge of God, Gollancz, New York, 1987; (brief summary). See also: Greg Bear, Anvil of Stars, Century, London, U.K., 1992; (review)

696. Frederick Pohl, Mars Plus, Baen Books, New York, 1994.

697. George Parsons Lathrop, “In the Deep of Time,” English Illustrated Magazine, March 1897, pp. 47-72. Reprinted in George W. Locke, Worlds Apart: An Anthology of Interplanetary Fiction, Cornmarket Reprints, 1972.

698. J.A.N. Lee, “Konrad Zuse – Part II,” 30 September 1994;

699. M.E. Merchant, “The future of batch manufacture,” Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. A 275(1973):357-372.


Last updated on 1 August 2005