**Kinematic
Self-Replicating Machines**

**©
2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.**

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, *Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines*,
Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.

**References 300-399**

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http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/VonNeumann.html;

http://www.brunel.ac.uk:8080/depts/AI/alife/al-vonne.htm;

http://www.rit.edu/~drk4633/vonNeumann/;

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372. John R. Koza, “Artificial life: spontaneous emergence of self-replicating and evolutionary self-improving computer programs,” in Christopher G. Langton, Artificial Life III, Proc. Volume XVII Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1994, pp. 225-262.

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376. Eleonora Bilotta, Antonio Lafusa, Pietro Pantano, “Is self-replication an embedded characteristic of artificial/living matter?” in Russell K. Standish, Hussein A. Abbass, Mark A. Bedau, eds., Artificial Life VIII, 8th Intl. Conf. on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, University of New South Wales, Australia, 9-13 December 2002, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000, pp. 38-48; http://parallel.acsu.unsw.edu.au/complex/alife8/proceedings/sub1967.pdf

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380. Moshe Sipper, Evolution of Parallel Cellular Machines: The Cellular Programming Approach, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1997; http://lslwww.epfl.ch/~moshes/pcm.html

381. J.A. Reggia, H.-H. Chou, J. D. Lohn, “Cellular automata models of self-replicating systems,” in M. Zelkowitz, ed., Advances in Computers, Vol. 47, Academic Press, New York, 1998, pp. 141-183; http://ic.arc.nasa.gov/ic/people/jlohn/Papers/aic1998.pdf

382. Jason D. Lohn, “Cellular space models of self-replicating systems,” Lect. Math. Life Sci. 26(1999):11-30.

383. Jason D. Lohn, James A. Reggia, “Exploring the design space of artificial self-replicating structures,” in L.C. Jain, ed., Evolution of Engineering and Information Systems and Their Applications, CRC Press, 2000, pp. 67-103; http://ic.arc.nasa.gov/ic/people/jlohn/Papers/jainchapter2000.pdf

384. M. Sipper, Machine Nature: The Coming Age of Bio-Inspired Computing, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002; http://www.moshesipper.com/mn/

385. D.C. Bunzli, M.S. Capcarrere, “Fault-tolerant structures: towards robust self-replication in a probabilistic environment,” in J. Kelemen, P. Sosik, eds., Advances in Artificial Life, Proc. 6th European Conf. (ECAL2001), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001, pp. 90-99.

386. C.L. Nehaniv, “Evolution in Asynchronous Cellular Automata,” Artificial Life VIII, MIT Press, 2002, pp. 65-73; http://parallel.hpc.unsw.edu.au/complex/alife8/proceedings/sub7376.pdf or http://homepages.feis.herts.ac.uk/~nehaniv/pubs.html

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388. Umberto Pesavento, “An implementation of von Neumann’s self-reproducing machine,” Artificial Life 2(Summer 1995):337-354. See also: R. Nobili, U. Pesavento, “John von Neumann’s Automata Revisited,” 1994, described by W.R. Buckley as “an unpublished manuscript detailing an investigation into cellular automata based on von Neumann’s specification, and also cellular automata based on a variation to the state set on the von Neumann specification.” Online animations of the von Neumann constructor and other cell automata, based on the Pesavento/Nobili work, are online at: Tim Hutton, “John von Neumann’s Universal Constructor,” http://www.eastman.ucl.ac.uk/~thutton/Evolution/JvN/ or at http://alife.santafe.edu/alife/software/jvn.html

389. A.R. Smith, III, “Cellular automata and formal languages,” IEEE Conference Record of 11th Annual Symposium on Switching and Automata Theory, Santa Monica, 28-30 October 1970, New York, IEEE, 1970, pp. 216-224.

390. Martin Gardner, “The fantastic combinations of John Conway’s new solitaire game ‘life’,” Sci. Amer. 223(October 1970):120-123.

391. Martin Gardner, “On cellular automata, self-reproduction, the Garden of Eden and the game ‘Life’,” Sci. Amer. 224(February 1971):112-117.

392. Justin Milliun, Judy Reardon, Peter Smart, “Life with your computer,” Byte 3(December 1978):45-50; David J. Buckingham, “Some facts of Life,” Byte 3(December 1978):54-67; Jonathan Millen, “One-dimensional Life,” Byte 3(December 1978):68-74; William Englander, “Programming quickies: Life,” Byte 3(December 1978):76-82; Mark D. Niemiac, “Life algorithms,” Byte 4(January 1979):90-97; Randy Soderstrom, “Life can be easy,” Byte 4(April 1979):166-169; Selby Evans, “APL makes Life easy (and vice versa),” Byte 5(October 1980):192-193.

393. Elwyn R. Berlekamp, John Horton Conway, Richard Guy, Winning Ways for Your Mathematical Plays, Academic Press, New York, 1982.

394. Martin Gardner, Wheels, Life, and Other Mathematical Amusements, W.H. Freeman, New York, 1983.

395. William Poundstone, The Recursive Universe, Morrow, New York, 1985.

396. A.K. Dewdney, “Computer Recreations: The game of Life acquires some successors in three dimensions,” Sci. Amer. 256(February 1987):16-24.

397. Bastien Chopard, Michel Droz, Cellular Automata Modeling of Physical Systems, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

398. R. Rucker, J. Walker, “Origins of CelLab. Classical era: Von Neumann to Gosper,” Cellular Automata Laboratory, http://www.fourmilab.ch/cellab/manual/chap5.html; movie of 3-D version of the Fredkin Parity rule, http://www.fourmilab.ch/cellab/manual/footnote.html#F5_7; see also http://wwwmaths.anu.edu.au/DoM/firstyear/poetry/ArtificialLife/AL2__Self_reproduction(6).pdf

399. Tim Hutton, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 13 August 2003, including a quotation from a letter written to Hutton by Nobili; Nobili’s contribution is also mentioned in the README file for the original code at http://www.eastman.ucl.ac.uk/~thutton/Evolution/JvN/jvn.readme

Last updated on 1 August 2005