Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines

© 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.


References 200-299

200. Moshe Sipper, “Fifty Years of Research on Self-Replication: An Overview,” Artificial Life 4(Summer 1998):237-257, in “Special Issue on Self-Replication.” See also: Moshe Sipper, “The Artificial Self-Replication Page,” or

201. Moshe Sipper, James A. Reggia, “Go forth and replicate,” Sci. Amer. 285(August 2001):34-43.

202. Simson Garfinkel, “Critique of nanotechnology,” Whole Earth Review (Summer 1990):104.

203. David E.H. Jones, “Technical boundless optimism,” Nature 374(27 April 1995):835-837; response: Ralph C. Merkle, “Nanocritics,” 1995;

204. Gary Stix, “Trends in nanotechnology: waiting for breakthroughs,” Sci. Amer. 274(April 1996):94-99; response: Ralph C. Merkle, “Foresight debate with Scientific American,” 1996,

205. “Maxwell’s Demon – A Predecessor of Nanotechnology,” in Michael Gross, Travels to the Nanoworld: Miniature Machinery in Nature and Technology, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA, 1999, pp. 211-214.

206. Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay Jr., Bruce E. Bursten, Chemistry: The Central Science, 8th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2000, pp. 199-200.

207. Ralph C. Merkle, “That’s impossible! How good scientists reach bad conclusions,” April 2001; or

208. K. Eric Drexler, Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992;

209. Ralph C. Merkle, “Self-replicating systems and low cost manufacturing,” in M.E. Welland, J.K. Gimzewski, eds., The Ultimate Limits of Fabrication and Measurement, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1994, pp. 25-32;

210. Ralph C. Merkle, “Design-ahead for nanotechnology,” in Markus Krummenacker, James Lewis, eds., Prospects in Nanotechnology: Toward Molecular Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995, pp. 23-52.

211. Ralph C. Merkle, “Self replicating systems and molecular manufacturing,” J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 45(1992):407-413;

212. Ralph C. Merkle, “Design considerations for an assembler,” Nanotechnology 7(1996):210-215;

213. Ralph C. Merkle, “Convergent assembly,” Nanotechnology 8(1997):18-22;

214. Ralph C. Merkle, “Binding sites for use in a simple assembler,” Nanotechnology 8(1997):23-28;

215. Ralph C. Merkle, “A new family of six degree of freedom positional devices,” Nanotechnology 8(1997):47-52;

216. Ralph C. Merkle, “A proposed ‘metabolism’ for a hydrocarbon assembler,” Nanotechnology 8(1997):149-162;

217. Ralph C. Merkle, “Casing an assembler,” Nanotechnology 10(1999):315-322;

218. Ralph C. Merkle, “Molecular building blocks and development strategies for molecular nanotechnology,” Nanotechnology 11(2000):89-99;

219. Charles B. Musgrave, Jason K. Perry, Ralph C. Merkle, William A. Goddard III, “Theoretical studies of a hydrogen abstraction tool for nanotechnology,” Nanotechnology 2(1991):187-195;

220. Charles W. Bauschlicher Jr., Alessandra Ricca, Ralph C. Merkle, “Chemical storage of data,” Nanotechnology 8(1997):1-5.

221. Stephen P. Walch, Ralph C. Merkle, “Theoretical studies of diamond mechanosynthesis reactions,” Nanotechnology 9(1998):285-296; See also: S.P. Walch, W.A. Goddard III, R.C. Merkle, “Theoretical studies of reactions on diamond surfaces,” Fifth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, 1997;

222. Jie Han, Al Globus, Richard Jaffe, Glenn Deardorff, “Molecular dynamics simulations of carbon nanotube-based gears,” Nanotechnology 8(1997):95-102.

223. T. Cagin, A. Jaramillo-Botero, G. Gao, W.A. Goddard III, “Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics analysis of Drexler-Merkle gears and neon pump,” Nanotechnology 9(1998):143-152.

224. Al Globus, Charles W. Bauschlicher Jr., Jie Han, Richard L. Jaffe, Creon Levit, Deepack Srivastava, “Machine phase fullerene nanotechnology,” Nanotechnology 9(1998):192-199; paper presented at the 5th Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, November 1997;

225. J. Storrs Hall, “Architectural considerations for self-replicating manufacturing systems,” Nanotechnology 10(1999):323-330; or

226. A. Globus, D. Bailey, J. Han, R. Jaffe, C. Levit, R.C. Merkle, D. Srivastava, “NASA applications of molecular nanotechnology,” J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc. 51(1998):145-152;

227. Ralph C. Merkle, “It’s a small, small, small, small world,” Tech. Rev. (Feb/Mar 1997):25-;

228. Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 1999;

229. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell,” Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobil. Biotech. 26(1998):411-430; (abstract); (paper), with images at See also: Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Respirocytes: High Performance Artificial Nanotechnology Red Cells,” Nanotechnology Magazine 2(October 1996):1, 8-13,'96.PDF

230. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Clottocytes: Artificial Mechanical Platelets,” Foresight Update No. 41, 30 June 2000, pp. 9-11; or, with images at

231. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Say Ah!” The Sciences 40(July/August 2000):26-31; or

232. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Nanodentistry,” J. Amer. Dent. Assoc. 131(November 2000):1559-1566; (abstract), (paper)

233. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Microbivores: Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes using Digest and Discharge Protocol,” J. Evol. Technol. 14(April 2005):1-52; or See also: “Microbivores: Artificial Mechanical Phagocytes,” Foresight Update No. 44, 31 March 2001, pp. 11-13; and, with images at

234. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Robots in the bloodstream: the promise of nanomedicine,” Pathways, The Novartis Journal 2(October-December 2001):36-41;

235. Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2003;

236. Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Progress in Nanomedicine and Medical Nanorobotics,” in Michael Rieth, Wolfram Schommers, eds., Handbook of Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology, American Scientific Publishers, Stevenson Ranch, CA, 2005. See also: Robert A. Freitas Jr., “Current Status of Nanomedicine and Medical Nanorobotics (Invited Survey),” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 2(March 2005):1-25; (abstract) and (paper).

237. Stanislaw M. Ulam, Adventures of a Mathematician, Charles Scribner, New York, 1976, p. 32.

238. Stephen C. Kleene, Introduction to Metamathematics, D. van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1952; Introduction to Mathematical Logic, John Wiley, New York, 1967; Formalized Recursive Functionals and Formalized Realizability, Memoirs, No. 1/89, American Mathematical Society, 1969.

239. Egon Borger, Computability, Complexity, Logic, Studies in the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 128, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989;

240. Michael Sipser, Introduction to the Theory of Computation, Chapter 6, First Edition, PWS Publishing Company, Albany, N.Y., 1997;

241. Piergiorgio Odifreddi, Classical Recursion Theory, Volume II, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1999.

242. W. Ross Ashby, “The self-reproducing system,” in C.A. Muses, W.S. McCulloch, eds., Aspects of the Theory of Artificial Intelligence, Plenum Press, New York, 1962, pp. 9-18.

243. John G. Kemeny, “Man viewed as a machine,” Sci. Amer. 192(April 1955):58-67; Sci. Amer. 192(June 1955):6 (errata).

244. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, The Monadology, 1698; translated by Robert Latta; Reprinted in: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, The Monadology and Other Philosophical Essays, Macmillan, New York, 1965; translated by Paul Schrecker and Anne Martin Schrecker.

245. G. Kampis, V. Csanyi, “Replication in abstract and natural systems,” BioSystems 20(1987):143-152.

246. Margaret A. Boden, “Autopoiesis and life,” Cognitive Science Quarterly 1(2000):117-145;

247. Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus, Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor, and Jones, London, 1818;

248. F. Thieberger, The Great Rabbi Loew of Prague: His Life and Work and the Legend of the Golem, Horovitz Publishing Co., London, 1955.

249. Rachel Strasser, “An anomalous Genesis: metaphor and implication in the creation of the golem,” 1999; or

250. Julien Offray de La Mettrie, L’Homme Machine, d’Elie Luzac, Leyden, 1748. Translated as: Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Man a Machine, Open Court Publishing Company, La Salle, IL, 1912, 1943, 1961. Translated and revised by Mary Whiton Calkins. E-text at: See also: Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Man a Machine and Man a Plant, Richard A. Watson et al, eds., Hackett, Indianapolis, 1994.

251. Baron d’Holbach (Paul Henri Thiry), Systeme de la nature, 1770. Paul Henri Thiry, Baron d’Holbach, The System of Nature, 2 vols (H.D. Robinson, ed.), Mendum, Boston MA, 1889. Baron d’Holbach, System of Nature, Franklin, New York, 1970; Garland Publ. Co., New York, 1984; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995; Clinamen Press Ltd., Manchester, U.K., 2000.

252. Pierre Jean George Cabanis, Rapports du physique et du moral de l’homme, 1796-1797. Pierre Jean George Cabanis, On the Relation Between the Physical and Moral Aspects of Man, 2 volumes translated by Margaret Duggan Saidi, edited by George Mora, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD, 1981.

253. Samuel Butler, Unconscious Memory, David Bogue, London, 1880. Reprinted as: Samuel Butler, Unconscious Memory: The Shrewsbury Edition of the Works of Samuel Butler, Volume 6, Classic Books, London, 1923; Jonathan Cape, London, 1924; pp. 13, 15.

254. Edward Pontee, “Karel Capek’s R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots): Background and Summary”;

255. Dennis G. Jerz, “R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots),” 8 October 2002;

256. Gloria McMillan, “Rossum’s Universal Robots, With Link Documents,” 2003;

257. Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Judgement, Part II Critique of Teleological Judgement, 1790; in R.M. Hutchins, M.J. Adler, transl. by James Creed Meredith, Britannica World Books, Vol. 42, 1952, pp. 550-613.

258. John Collier, “Organized Complexity: Properties, Models and the Limits of Understanding,” See other papers at

259. Erik Benson, “Self-referential sentences,”

260. D. Hofstadter, “Metamagical themas,” Sci. Amer. 246(January 1982):12-17. Reprinted in: Douglas R. Hofstadter, Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern, Bantam Books, New York, 1986.

261. Bhagavad-Gita, or; Charles T. Tart, “Chapter 11. Observation of Internal States,” States of Consciousness, E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, 1975, pp. 156-162,; Gertrude W. Van Pelt, Hierarchies: The Ladder of Life, Theosophical University Press, 1998,

262. C.L. Nehaniv, Kerstin Dautenhahn, “Self-replication and reproduction: considerations and obstacles for rigorous definitions,”, Proc. GWAL-98, 3rd German Workshop on Artificial Life 1998, Germany; Abstracting and Synthesizing the Principles of Life, Verlag Harri Deutsch, 1998;

263. Michael A. Arbib, “Some comments on self-reproducing automata,” in John F. Hart, Satoru Takasu, eds., Systems and Computer Science, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1967, pp. 42-59.

264. John Maynard Smith, The Problems of Biology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986.

265. Ian Stewart, “Why Have Sex?” The Sensual Magazine; from lecture given at Gresham College, London, on 11 February 1998;

266. David J. Furley, Two Studies in the Greek Atomists, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1967.

267. Ralph E. Kenyon, Jr., “Chapter V. Atomism And Divisionism After Aristotle. Epicurus (341-270 BC),” in Atomism and Infinite Divisibility, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, February 1994;

268. Bart J. Bok, “The Milky Way galaxy,” Sci. Am. 244(March 1981):92-120, 115.

269. Bryant Adams, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 10 September 2003.

270. P.L. Luisi, “About various definitions of life,” Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 28(1998):613-622.

271. Foresight Institute, “Molecular Nanotechnology Guidelines: Draft Version 3.7,” 4 June 2000;

272. Bryant Adams, Hod Lipson, “A Unifying Framework for Self-Replication Phenomena,” Cornell University preprint, 2003, in review.

273. Ralph C. Merkle, Eric G. Parker, George D. Skidmore, “Method and system for self-replicating manufacturing stations,” United States Patent No. 6,510,359, 21 January 2003;,510,359.WKU.&OS=PN/6,510,359

274. George Dyson, “Darwin Among the Machines; or, the Origins of [Artificial] Life,” presentation for The Third Culture published in Edge 21, 8 July 1997; or

275. Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976.

276. Arun K. Pati, Samuel L. Braunstein, “Quantum mechanical universal constructor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (2003), submitted; online at arXiv:quant-ph/0303124v1, 19 March 2003, 7 pp;

277. Charles Seife, “Bad News for Quantum Clones,” ScienceNOW, 7 May 2003;

278. Michael A. Arbib, Brains, Machines, and Mathematics, Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1987.


Last updated on 1 August 2005