Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines

© 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.


References 100-199

100. Research Group on Artificial Life (GRAL), National Research Council (CNR), Rome, Italy;

101. New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI), Cambridge, MA;

102. Artificial Life Project, Reed College;

103. Santa Fe Institute;

104. Unemi Laboratory, Department of Information Systems Science, Soka University, Japan;

105. Logic Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland;

106. Evolutionary and Neural Systems Exploration (SENSE) Research Group, Syracuse University;

107. L-Systems Group, Trinity College, Hartford;

108. Geneura Team, Departamento de Arquitectura y Tecnología de los Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Spain;

109. Artificial Life and Complex Systems group, Department of Computer Science, Universitat Dortmund, Germany;

110. Artis Project, Computational Science Section, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

111. Genetic Programming Group, University College London, U.K.;

112. EVALife: Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life, University of Aarhus, Denmark;

113. Artificial Life Group at Aizu, University of Aizu, Japan;

114. Evolutionary Computation Group, University of Edinburgh, U.K.;

115. Sayama Lab, Complex Systems Laboratory, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan;

116. Natural Selection Group, University of Guelph, Canada;

117. Adaptive Systems Research Group, University of Hertfordshire, U.K.;

118. Digital Genetic Research Group, University of Idaho;

119. Illinois Genetic Algorithms Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; or

120. Symbolic Optimization Research Group, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.;

121. Adaptive Computational Group, Computer Science Department, University of New Mexico;

122. Investigations in Computational Rationality, University of Pennsylvania;

123. Evolutionary Optimization Group, University of Southampton, U.K.;

124. Evolutionary and Adaptive Systems, Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, U.K.; and See also: Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics (CCNR);

125. Evolutionary Computing Group, University of the West of England at Bristol, U.K.;

126. Ikegami Laboratory, Complex Systems and Artificial Life, University of Tokyo, Japan;

127. Hiroki Sayama, “Intensive Course on Complex Systems Science II: Invitation to Self-Replication Studies,” part-time lecture held at the Department of Complex Systems Science, Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Japan, Summer 2003; (restricted access only)

128. Pavel O. Luksha, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 9 October 2003.

129. Jack Uldrich, “‘Exponential’ Thinking for the Future,” Tech Central Station, 21 January 2004;

130. Arthur C. Clarke, Address to the 4th International Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, 1968; in Arthur C. Clarke, Report on Planet Three and Other Speculations, Harper Collins, New York, 1972.

150. Michael Denton, “Chapter 3. Organism and Machine: The Flawed Analogy,” in Jay W. Richards, ed., Are We Spiritual Machines? Ray Kurzweil vs. the Critics of Strong A.I., Discovery Institute, Seattle, WA, 2002, pp. 78-97;; see also with Kurzweil’s response in Chapter 7.

151. John Mymer, The Paleolithic Age, Palgrave Macmillan, 1982.

152. Donald E. Tyler, Earliest Man of America in Oregon, U.S.A., with photographs of Paleolithic artifacts, Discovery Books, 1986.

153. Ronald Singer, Bruce G. Gladfelter, John J. Wymer, The Lower Paleolithic Site at Hoxne, England, University of Chicago Press, 1993.

154. Fred Wendorf, Romuald Schild, Angela E. Close, Egypt During the Last Interglacial: The Middle Paleolithic of Bir Tarfawi and Bir Sahara East, Plenum Publishing Corp., 1993.

155. Olga Soffer, The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain, Academic Press, New York, 1997.

156. Donald E. Tyler, American Paleolithic: Boat Building Eight Million Years Ago, Discovery Books, 1999.

157. J.E. Scott-Jackson, ed., Lower and Middle Paleolithic Artifacts from Deposits Mapped as Clay-with-Flints, Ox Bow Press, 2000.

158. Margherita Mussi, Earliest Italy: An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

159. R.F. Tylecote, History of Metallurgy, Second Edition, Ashgate Publishing Company, 1992; Michael S. Bisson, S. Terry Childs, Philip De Barros, Augusti Holl, Ancient African Metallurgy: The Sociocultural Context, Altamira Press, 2000.

160. I.J. Thorpe, The Origins of Agriculture in Europe, Routledge, 1999; K.D. White, Agricultural Implements and Farm Equipment in the Roman World, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 2002.

161. John William Humphrey, John Peter Oleson, Andrew N. Sherwood, eds., Greek and Roman Technology, A Sourcebook: Annotated Translations of Greek and Roman Texts and Documents, Routledge, 1998.

162. Stephen Selby, “A Crossbow Mechanism with Some Unique Features from Shandong, China,” 2001;

163. Hong-Sen Yan, The Beauty of Ancient Chinese Locks, Ancient Chinese Machines Research Foundation, Tainan, Taiwan, June 1999 (ISBN 957-97374-9-5). In Chinese.

164. Willis I. Milham, Time and Timekeepers, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1944.

165. John G. Landels, Engineering in the Ancient World, University of California Press, 1981.

166. E.J. Dijksterhuis, Archimedes, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1987.

167. Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, The Crossbow, Mediaeval and Modern, Military and Sporting, its Construction, History & Management with a Treatise on Balista and Catapult of the Ancients, and an Appendix on the Catapult, Balista & the Turkish Bow, The Holland Press, London, 1995; Michael Woods, Mary B. Woods, Ancient Warfare: From Clubs to Catapults, Runestone Press, 2000.

168. Sarah Underhill Wisseman, Wendell S. Williams, eds., Ancient Technologies and Archeological Materials, Routledge, 1994.

169. “Section 40. On an Apple being lifted, Hercules shoots a Dragon which then hisses,” from: Bennet Woodcroft (translator and editor), The Pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria, from the Original Greek, Taylor Walton and Maberly, London, 1851;

170. Derek de Solla Price, Gears from the Greeks, Science History Publications, New York, 1975; Derek de Solla Price, “Gears from the Greeks: The Antikythera mechanism – a calendar computer from ca. 80 BC,” Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 64(1974):1-70; Derek J. de Solla Price, “An ancient Greek computer,” Sci. Amer. 200(June 1959):60-67; Antikythera mechanism links:;;

171. Gerald M. Levitt The Turk, Chess Automaton, McFarland & Company, 2000.

172. Tom Standage, The Turk: The Life and Times of the Famous Eighteenth-Century Chess-Playing Machine, Walker & Co., 2002.

173. Alfred Chapuis, Edmond Droz (Alec Reid, transl.), Automata: A Historical and Technological Study, B.T. Batsford Ltd., London, 1958; D. J. de Solla Price, “Automata and the origins of mechanism and mechanistic philosophy,” Technology and Culture 5(Spring 1964):9-23; Silvio Bedini, “The role of automata in the history of technology,” Technology and Culture 5(Spring 1964):24-42; Christen Bailly, Automata, the Golden Age: 1848-1914, Harper and Row, New York, 1987. See also:;

174. Bruce Mazlish, The Fourth Discontinuity: The Co-Evolution of Humans and Machines, Yale University Press, 1993.

175. Gaby Wood, Edison’s Eve: A Magical History of the Quest for Mechanical Life, Knopf, New York, 2002;,6761,650977,00.html.

176. Etienne Benson, “Science historian examines the 18th-century quest for artificial life,” Stanford Report, 19 October 2001; See also:;;

177. Sigvar Strandh, The History of the Machine, Dorset Press, New York, 1979; e.g.,

178. E.B. Carne et al, “A self-organizing binary logic element,” in Eugene E. Bernard, Morley R. Kare, eds., Biological Prototypes and Synthetic Systems, Vol. I, Plenum Press, New York, 1962, pp. 311-330.

179. Nicholas V. Findler, Wiley R. McKinzie, “Computer simulation of a self-preserving and learning organism,” Bull. Math. Biophys. 31(1969):247-253.

180. W. Grey Walter, “An imitation of life,” Sci. Am. 182(May 1950):42-45; W. Grey Walter, “A machine that learns,” Sci. Am. 185(August 1951):60-63; W. Grey Walter, The Living Brain, N.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1953; W. Grey Walter, “Imitation of life,” Scientific American Reader, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1953, pp. 545-551; Owen E. Holland, “Grey Walter: The pioneer of real Artificial Life,” in Christopher Langton, ed., Proc. 5th Intl. Workshop on Artificial Life, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997, pp. 34-44. See also: “Machina Speculatrix”,

181. M.F. Huber; “Free roving machine,” Wireless World 78(December 1972):593-594.

182. Edmund C. Berkeley, “The construction of living robots – Part I,” Computers and Automation 21(August 1972):27-32.

183. Valentino Braitenberg, Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1984.

184. Joseph L. Jones, Anita M. Flynn, Mobile Robots: Inspiration to Implementation, A.K. Peters Ltd., Wellesley, MA, 1993.

185. B. Hasslacher, M.W. Tilden, “Living machines,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems 15(July 1995):143-169; online draft dated 14 June 1994, Reprinted as: B. Hasslacher, M.W. Tilden, “Living Machines,” in L. Steels, ed., Robotics and Autonomous Systems: The Biology and Technology of Intelligent Autonomous Agents, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995, pp. 1-36.

186. Rodney Brooks, Cambrian Intelligence: The Early History of the New AI, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999.

187. Rene Descartes, Traite de l’homme (Treatise on Man), composed ca. 1633, published posthumously in 1664; reprinted in John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, Dugald Murdoch, transl., The Philosophical Writings of Rene Descartes, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1985, pp. 99-107. See also: “Animals are machines,” reprinted in Tom Regan, Peter Singer, eds., Animal Rights and Human Obligations, Prentice-Hall, Inc., NJ, 1976, pp. 60-66.

188. Samuel Butler, Erewhon, J.M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., Aldine House, Bedford Street, London, 1932; First Edition, 1872. See at:

189. Francis Fukayama, Jacques Attali, “The beginning of a new history,” New Perspectives Quarterly 17(Summer 2000); or Pugwash Online:

190. Moshe Sipper, James A. Reggia, “Build your own replicator,” Sci. Amer. 285(August 2001):38-39.

191. Therese Lowery, “BEAM Robotics,” 26 August 1999; See also: Brian O. Bush, “The BEAM FAQ,” 10 December 1998; See also: Dave Hrynkiw, Mark W. Tilden, Junkbots, Bugbots, and Bots on Wheels: Building Simple Robots with BEAM Technology, McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, New York, 2002.

192. Robert Jastrow, The Enchanted Loom: Mind in the Universe, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1981.

193. Scott Adams, Shave the Whales, Andrews McMeel Publishing, Kansas City, MO, 1994, p. 88.

194. William Paley, Natural Theology: or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, Collected from the Appearances of Nature, Chapter i, Section 1, E. Goodale, 1802; (12th Edition, 1809). See also: Michael Ruse, ed., Philosophy of Biology, 1998, pp. 36-40; Richard Lenski, “Twice as natural,” Nature 414(15 November 2001):255.

195. Alexander J. Cohen, “Erewhon: Self-Reproducing Machines”;

196. John Desmond Bernal, The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: An Enquiry into the Future of the Three Enemies of the Rational Soul, reprint of the 1929 essay, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1969. See also at:

197. K. Eric Drexler, “Molecular engineering: an approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 78(September 1981):5275-5278.

198. K. Eric Drexler, “Molecular nanomachines: Physical principles and implementation strategies,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23(1994):377-405.

199. K. Eric Drexler, Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, Anchor Press/Doubleday, New York, 1986;


Last updated on 1 August 2005