Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines

© 2004 Robert A. Freitas Jr. and Ralph C. Merkle. All Rights Reserved.

Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX, 2004.


References 1-99

1. Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, Diamond Surfaces and Diamond Mechanosynthesis, Landes Bioscience, 2005, in preparation;

2. Robert A. Freitas Jr., William P. Gilbreath, eds., Advanced Automation for Space Missions, NASA Conference Publication CP-2255 (N83-15348), 1982;

3. John von Neumann, Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, A.W. Burks, ed., University of Illinois Press, Urbana IL, 1966.

4. Arthur W. Burks, “Von Neumann’s self-reproducing automata,” in A.W. Burks, ed., Essays on Cellular Automata, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1970, pp. 3-64.

5. Emi Horiguchi, Hiroki Sayama, “A simulation model of toys that self-replicate in a physical world,” Proceedings of the 9th Emergent Systems Symposium, Summer School on Emergence 2003, Toyama, Japan, 2003, pp. 94-97. In Japanese.

6. Richard A. Laing, personal communication to Robert A. Freitas Jr., 15 September 2003.

7. Raj Reddy, “Grand challenges in artificial intelligence,” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 27(September 1995):301-303;

8. Hiroki Sayama, “Workplace construction: A theoretical model of robust self-replication in kinematic universe,” Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics (AROB 8th ‘03), 24-26 January 2003, Beppu, Oita, Japan;

9. Hiroki Sayama, “Von Neumann’s machine in the shell: Enhancing the robustness of self-replication processes,” in Russell K. Standish, Hussein A. Abbass, Mark A. Bedau, eds., Artificial Life VIII, 8th Intl. Conf. on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems, University of New South Wales, Australia, 9-13 December 2002, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000, pp. 49-52;

10. M.A. Bedau, J.S. McCaskill, N.H. Packard, S. Rasmussen, C. Adami, D.G. Green, T. Ikegami, K. Kaneko, T.S. Ray, “Open problems in artificial life,” Artificial Life 6(2000):363-376.

11. Douglas Brown, “Proponents Float ‘Man On The Moon’ Push For Nanotechnology,” Small Times, 9 July 2003;

12. Michio Kaku, Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century, Bantam Books, New York, 1998;

13. Viola Vogel, “Societal impacts of nanotechnology in education and medicine,” Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Final Report from the Workshop held at the National Science Foundation, 28-29 September 2000, March 2001, pp. 143-148; or

14. Richard E. Smalley, “Of chemistry, love, and nanobots,” Sci. Amer. 285(September 2001):76-77.

15. George M. Whitesides, “The Once and Future Nanomachine,” Sci. Amer. 285(September 2001):78-83.

16. K. Eric Drexler, David Forrest, Robert A. Freitas Jr., J. Storrs Hall, Neil Jacobstein, Tom McKendree, Ralph Merkle, Christine Peterson, “On Physics, Fundamentals, and Nanorobots: A Rebuttal to Smalley’s Assertion that Self-Replicating Mechanical Nanorobots Are Simply Not Possible,” Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, September 2001;

17. K. Eric Drexler, David Forrest, Robert A. Freitas Jr., J. Storrs Hall, Neil Jacobstein, Tom McKendree, Ralph Merkle, Christine Peterson, “Many future nanomachines: a rebuttal to Whiteside’s assertion that mechanical molecular assemblers are not workable and not a concern,” Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, September 2001;

18. George Bekey, Ivan Bekey, David Criswell, George Friedman, Dan Greenwood, David Miller, Peter Will, “NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems,” Final Report, 4-8 April 2000, Arlington VA; See Workshop website at or at

19. George Friedman, “Chapter 6. Self-Replicating Automata for Space Solar Power,” in George Bekey, Ivan Bekey, David Criswell, George Friedman, Dan Greenwood, David Miller, Peter Will, “NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems,” Final Report, 4-8 April 2000, Arlington VA; or

20. George Friedman, “Self-replication technology for the space solar power mission,” workshop presentation for the Joint NASA/NSF Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems, 4-7 April 2002; (slides) and (index)

21. Specialized professional journals of possible relevance to kinematic self-replicating machines:
Adaptive Behavior,;
Advanced Robotics,;
Advances in Complex Systems,;
Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing,;
Artificial Life, or;
Artificial Life and Robotics,;
ASME Journal of Mechanical Design,;
Assembly Automation,;
Automated Software Engineering,;
Automatica, or;
Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems,;
Autonomous Robots,;
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology,;
Complexity International,;
Complex Systems,;
Cybernetics and Systems,;
Desktop Engineering Magazine,;
Electronic Journal of Computational Kinematics,;
Engineering Computations: Intl. Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering and Software,;
Evolutionary Computation,;
Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, or;
Haptics-e: The Electronic Journal of Haptics Research,;
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics,;
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems,;
IEEE Control Systems Magazine,;
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine,;
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control,;
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering,;
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology,;
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, or;
IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, or;
IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation,;
Industrial Robot, or;
Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ) Transactions, or;
Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing,;
Integrated Manufacturing Systems,;
International Journal of Mechatronics,;
International Journal of Robotics Research, and;
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation (JASSS),;
Journal of Automation and Information Sciences,;
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience,;
Journal of Evolution and Technology,;
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, and;
Journal of Mechanical Design,;
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems; Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics,;
Journal of Micromechatronics,;
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology,;
Journal of Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems, Belarus,;
Journal of Robotic Systems,;
Journal of Theoretical Biology,;
Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan,;
Mechanism and Machine Theory,;
Mechatronics, or;
Microsystem Technologies,;
Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems,;
Physica D (Nonlinear Phenomena),;
Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments,;
Progress in Complexity, Information and Design,;
Rapid Prototyping Journal, and
Robotics and Autonomous Systems, and;
Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing,

22. “Design Automation Laboratory,” Arizona State University;

23. “Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,” California Polytechnic State University;

24. “Bachelor of Science in Mechatronic Engineering,” California State University at Chico; or

25. “Advanced Mechatronics Laboratory (AML),” Carnegie Mellon University,; Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute,; mechatronics class syllabus,

26. “Clemson University Mechatronics,” Clemson University,; “Research Projects,” Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory, See also: Christopher D. Rahn, Darren M. Dawson, Frank W. Paul, “Development of a Cross-Disciplinary Mechatronics Course”;

27. Dr. David G. Alciatore, PE, Colorado State University; See also

28. “Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics,” Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Germany;

29. “Georgia Tech Mobile Robot Lab,” Georgia Institute of Technology;

30. Gregory S. Chirikjian, Yu Zhou, Sangyoon Lee, Jackrit Suthakorn, “Mechatronics: ME 530.421 Spring 2003,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 2003;

31. “Mechatronics Research Group,” Loughborough University, U.K.;

32. “Precision Systems Design and Manufacturing,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),; “Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity (LMP),

33. “Mechatronikai,” Mechatronical Secondary Vocational School, Budapest, Hungary;

34. “ME 491/602: Mechatronic System Modeling and Simulation,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University;

35. “The Advanced Manufacturing and Mechatronics Centre (AMMC),” Middlesex University, U.K.;

36. “Mechatronics,” North Carolina State University;

37. “Mechatronics at Rensselaer,” Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute;

38. “ELEC 201(F): An Introduction to Engineering Design,” Rice University;

39. “SDSU Mechatronics,” San Diego State University;

40. “Mechatronics at San José State University,” College of Engineering, San Jose State University,; “ME 106 – Fundamentals of Mechatronics,”

41. “Mechatronics and Control Research Group,” South Bank University, London;

42. “Home to the Mechatronics Courses at Stanford University,” Smart Product Design Laboratory, Stanford University;; “Center for Design Research,”

43. “Dragon,” second stage of PIRAIA Project, Swedish Institute of Computer Science;

44. Institute of Robotics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland;

45. “Mechatronics,” University of California at Berkeley,; “Mechatronics Design Lab / EE192,”

46. “Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics,” University of Dundee, U.K.;

47. Design and Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida;

48. “UIUC College of Engineering Mechatronics Laboratory,” University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

49. “Mechatronik Homepage,” Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria;

50. “Mechatronics Research Group,” Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia;

51. Mechatronic Engineering program, University of Southern Denmark, Sonderborg, Denmark;

52. “Drebbel Institute for Mechatronics,” University of Twente, The Netherlands;

53. Satya Krosuri, “Mechatronics Main Page” and “ME3200/ME3210 Mechatronics,” University of Utah;

54. “Mechatronics Engineering Degree Programmes,” University of Western Australia;

55. “Center for Intelligent Mechatronics,” Vanderbilt University;

56. “Virginia Tech Mechatronics,” Virginia Polytechnic Institute; See also

57. Center for Automation Technologies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2002;

58. Center for International Research on MicroMechatronics (CIRMM), Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo;

59. “Research Opportunities in Biomolecular Nanotechnology at ASU,” Arizona State University;

60. “Nano & Micromechanics Laboratory,” Brown University;

61. “NASA Sponsored Computational Nanotechnology Project, Atomistic Design and Simulations of Nanoscale Machines and Assembly,” California Institute of Technology,; “Materials and Process Simulation Center,” California Institute of Technology,; “Roukes Group,” California Institute of Technology,

62. “NanoRobotics Laboratory,” Carnegie Mellon University; or

63. “The Physics of NEMS and MEMS,” Craighead Research Group, Cornell University;

64. “NanoRobotics Laboratory,” Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, Canada;

65. IEEE Nanotechnology Council, TC-1: Technical Committee on Nanorobotics and Nanomanufacturing;

66. “Micro-Nano Mechatronics,” Fukuda Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan,

67. “Institute for Nanotechnology,” Northwestern University;

68. “Nanofabrication Manufacturing Technology (2 NMT)... Associate in Engineering Technology degree in Nanofabrication Manufacturing Technology,” Pennsylvania State University;

69. “Micro & Nano Manufacturing, Microsystem Design, Assembly and Packaging,” Center for Automation Technologies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute;

70. “Nanomanufacturing Facility,” CBEN, Rice University;

71. Constantinos Mavroidis, Martin L. Yarmush, Atul Dubey, Angela Thornton, Kevin Nikitczuk, Silvina Tomassone, Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos, Bernie Yurke, “Protein based nano-machines for space applications,” Report to the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, December 2002;; research website “Bio-Nano Robotics” at See also: “Dinos Mavroidis Interview”, 15 December 2002;

72. “Manufacturing Systems and Robotics,” Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne;

73. “Nanotechnology Group,” Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ);

74. “Mechatronics,” Technische Universitat Ilmenau;

75. “Nanomechatronics: Master Level Course Plan,” School of Engineering, Tohoku University; and

76. “Zettl Research Group,” University of California at Berkeley;

77. “Montemagno Research Group,”; Xiang Zhang, “Micro- nano scale engineering,... micro and nano-devices, nano-lithography and nano-instrumentation,” University of California at Los Angeles,

78. “Yu Research on Nanoscale Mechanics and Physics,” University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign;

79. “Description of Research Activities, DNA- and Bio-Nanotechnology,” University of Minnesota;

80. “Nanoscale Science Research Group,” University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill;

81. “Laboratory for Molecular Robotics,” University of Southern California,; “CS 549 Nanorobotics Spring 2003,”; “Molecular Robotics: Nanoscale Manipulation,”

82. “Laser, MEMS, Nanoengineering,” University of Texas at Austin,; “NIH Biotechnology Training Grant – Molecular Sensors and Nanobiotechnology,” University of Texas at Austin,

83. Hideki Kawakatsu, “Kawakatsu Laboratory,” Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan,; “Tele-Nanorobotics,” University of Tokyo, Japan,

84. Sergey Edward Lyshevski, “Chapter 6. Mechatronics: New Directions in Nano-, Micro-, and Mini-Scale Electromechanical Systems Design, and Engineering Curriculum Development,” CRC Press, 2002;

85. Dynamical and Evolutionary Machine Organization Laboratory, Computer Science Department, Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University;

86. Brunel University, U.K.;

87. Avida Artificial Life Group, California Institute of Technology;

88. Computational Synthesis Laboratory, Cornell University; See also Hod Lipson, “Research Fields...Self Replication,”

89. DCU Artificial Life Laboratory, School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Ireland;

90. Équipe Évolution Artificielle et Apprentissage, École Polytechnique, France;

91. Genetic Algorithms Group, George Mason University;

92. Adaptive Systems Group, German National Research Centre for Information Technology, Germany;

93. Department of Adaptive Systems, Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the University of Szeged;

94. Artificial Life Group, Iowa State University;

95. Liverpool Bicomputation Group, Liverpool University, U.K.;

96. Artificial Life Group, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts;

97. Genetic Algorithms Research and Applications Group, Michigan State University; or

98. Arita group, Artificial Life Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan;

99. Evolutionary Computation Research Group, Napier University, U.K.;


Last updated on 1 August 2005